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Common Acronyms and Terms

Common Acronyms and Terms

Term
Description
Anaconda / Conda
A distribution of Python and R used for scientific computing that is meant to simplify package management and deployment. Conda is used for installing packages and managing their dependencies.
Association
Within Oscar, an association refers to a combination of four factors: Cluster, Account, User, and Partition. Associations are used to control job submissions for users.
Batch Jobs
Put simply, batch jobs are scheduled programs that are assigned to run on a computer without further user interaction.
CCV
Brown University's Center for Computation and Visualization. Provides software, expertise, and other services for Brown's research community. See our website for more information.
CESM
Stands for Community Earth System Model. "CESM is a fully-coupled, community, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states." (Source)
CIFS
Stands for Common Internet File System. CIFS is a network protocol used for providing shared access to files and devices on the same network. Users who are unable to use SMB for file-sharing should try CIFS as an alternative.
Condo
PIs can purchase condos that have a significant amount of computing resources which can be shared with others.
CUDA
"CUDA is an extension of the C language, as well as a runtime library, to facilitate general-purpose programming of NVIDIA GPUs." (Source)
HPC
Stands for High Performance Computing. HPC is the ability to process data and perform highly complex calculations at an accelerated rate. Oscar is the service that CCV offers to the Brown community for their High Performance Computing needs.
Job Array
A job array is a collection of jobs that all run the same program but on different values of a parameter.
Jupyter Notebook
"The Jupyter Notebook is an open-source web application that allows you to create and share documents that contain live code, equations, visualizations and narrative text."
Interactive Jobs
Jobs that allow the user to interact in real time with applications within Oscar, often from the command line. This differs from batch jobs in that each command to be run must be put in one at a time.
Modules
Modules are software components that can easily be loaded or unloaded into Oscar. For instance, a user can load the Python 3 module using a module load command.
MPI
Stands for Message Passing Interface. MPI is a system that aims to be the standard for portable and efficient message passing. Message passing is a technique often used in object-oriented programming and parallel programming
Partition
Partitions are essentially groupings of nodes that allocate resources for specific types of tasks. On Oscar, partitions are based on job submissions through the Slurm workload manager.
PI
Stands for Principal Investigator. Mainly used to refer to the individual responsible for conducting and administrating a research grant. Within Oscar, PIs have their own data directories that can be shared to students. PIs may also purchase condos.
PuTTY
A client for SSH for Windows and Unix that emulates a terminal
Python
An object-oriented, high-level, and popular programming language
Slurm
A workload manager used within Oscar to schedule jobs
SSH
Stands for Secure Shell Protocol. Used to communicate securely between computers and often used within a command-line interface (CLI) for connections to remote servers
SMB
The Server Message Block (SMB) protocol is a network protocol that allows users to communicate with remote computers for file-sharing and other uses. It is one of the versions of the Common Internet File System (CIFS). Within Oscar, SMB is mainly used for file transfer.
VNC
Stands for Virtual Network Computing. VNC is a desktop sharing system that allows you to remotely control another desktop. On Oscar, it is used to allow a desktop interface for applications.
Quality of Service (QOS)
The job limits that are linked to a given association. For instance, Priority Accounts will generally have a higher quality of service than Exploratory Accounts.